Tooth extraction is considered to be a rather complicated operation, which sometimes leads to complications. So, alveolitis is most common. It is about inflammation of the walls of the hole where the tooth was removed. It is necessary to remember about the possible symptoms of this disease in order to start treatment on time.
- In most cases, alveolitis occurs due to injury to the walls of the hole. They are quite thin, so with careless handling, you can damage or break them completely. In addition, the destruction of bone tissue fragments can get into the wound, which will cause infection. Alveolitis risk increases significantly. when removing a tooth wisdom.
- A common cause of the disease is considered sterility failure tooth, gum, and soft tissue. It should be noted that even with the use of serious antiseptics can not achieve absolute sterility. This is explained by the fact that tooth extraction is often prescribed in the presence of purulent complications.
- With a weakened immune system, the body can not cope with the bacteria, even if receiving antibiotics. For this reason, it is not recommended to remove teeth in case of acute infections of the mouth and nasopharynx, as well as in exacerbation of chronic diseases. After the removal procedure, contact with patients with a sore throat, cold or other infectious diseases should be avoided. Moreover, in some cases, a preventive course of antibiotics is prescribed. This applies to the elderly, patients with diabetes, cancer and AIDS.
- After removing the tooth in the hole a blood clot forms. If this does not happen, food particles will remain here, which will lead to the proliferation of microorganisms that cause alveolitis. Therefore, before the operation, it is necessary to check blood clotting, as well as to warn the dentist-surgeon that you are taking warfarin, aspirin or anticoagulants.
- Another cause of alveolitis is the neglect of their own health. So, some patients after removal do not follow the doctor’s recommendation. They do not rinse their mouth, use toothpicks and check with their fingers whether the area heals.
As a rule, at the initial stage, alveolitis is almost imperceptible, but it gradually progresses, that is, it spreads in width and depth. The first symptoms are observed. after 2-3 daysAfter tooth extraction.
- First, during the meal there is aching mild pain. Over time, it grows and acquires a shooting character. An unpleasant sensation arises near the hole, but gradually the pain engulfs almost the entire jaw and gives to the temple and ear.
- The patient may feel discomfort when opening the mouth.
- Body temperature often remains normal, but with the active development of alveolitis, it rises to 38-39º C.
- As a rule, pronounced intoxication is observed. This can be a persistent headache, aching muscles and joints, as well as nagging pains. Patients complain of a broken condition and fatigue.
- Soft tissues swell, and the gum itself significantly swells and reddens, which can be seen in the photo. If at this stage no treatment of the alveolitis is started, the affected area will acquire a bluish tinge. In a neglected case, necrosis is not excluded.
- An important feature is the complete or partial absence of a blood clot in the hole.
- Osteomyelitis will help to recognize the presence of alveolitis, a symptom of which is a purulent focus in the bone.
Forms of the disease
- Serous alveolitis manifested permanent aching painsintensified in the process of absorbing food. In general, the state of the body is satisfactory, and the temperature does not rise. Upon careful examination in the oral cavity, you can notice the absence or insufficient amount of a blood clot in the hole. Also visible are leftover food. Serous form develops within 3 days after tooth extraction. If during the week you do not start treatment, then complications will appear.
- Purulent alveolitis it is characterized by severe pain, unpleasant putrefaction, weakness, fever up to 38º C, pale skin. Because of the pain, it is difficult for the patient to eat. Soft tissues gradually swell, while there is asymmetry of the face. Lymph nodes often increase. On examination, a gray tinge and hyperemia are noticeable, and on palpation the patient complains of pain.
- Chronic suppurative alveolitis characterized by a decrease in inflammation and partial stabilization of the patient’s condition. If you carefully examine the oral cavity, you can notice the proliferation of soft tissue near the damaged hole. In addition, small gaps appear between the tissues and the bone wall. From the hole comes pus, and the mucous membrane swells and may become bluish.
To determine the presence of alveolitis can be at home. This disease is indicated by pain in the area of the well, fever, redness and swelling, as well as general weakness.
With careful examination, the dentist will diagnose and select the drugs, as well as prescribe appropriate procedures. To clarify the diagnosis, you must pass a blood test.
For the diagnosis of the house, you can use a thermal imager, with which the temperature of individual parts of the body is measured, namely in the oral area where the tooth was extracted.
Treatment of alveolitis begin immediately after the discovery of the first signs.
Most dentists opt for conservative therapy, which involves antibiotics, NVPV and antiseptics.
When choosing an antibiotic, it is necessary to make a start from the fact that the active substance must quickly penetrate into soft tissues, as well as bones. The following drugs meet these requirements: josamycin, sumamed, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, lincomycin and amikacin.
Antiseptics are used to mouthwash and direct washing of the well. This may be chlorhexidine, Corsodil, furatsilin, stotodin or hexorel.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to relieve pain. It is best to give preference to ibuprofen, voltaren, diclofenac or ketorolu. If taking such medication lasts several days, then you must additionally take omeprazole.
Since the alveolitis pains are the result of constant irritation trigeminal nerve, experts prescribe finlepsin. This drug fights the pain of precisely neurological origin.
Often appointed local anesthetics. We are talking about the use of lidocaine or novocaine.
In advanced cases, surgical treatment of alveolitis is recommended. An experienced specialist thoroughly cleans the well and soft tissues from food debris, necrotic layers, as well as pus.
To avoid the formation of alveolitis and possible complications, it is necessary to follow these guidelines:
- Come up to the choice of a dentist-surgeon very responsibly. Before removing a tooth, be sure to tell him about the medicines that you are constantly taking or drank the other day.
- Before removing, brush your teeth thoroughly and rinse your mouth.
- After the operation during the day you can not drink alcohol and carbonated drinks. Food should be carefully taken to prevent it from getting into the hole.
- In the postoperative period banned solid food and nuts.
- After tooth extraction, a cold compress should be applied to the jaw during the day.
- To avoid alveolitis, it is necessary to ensure that a clot forms at the site of the extracted tooth after the operation. It is important to gently blow your nose and sneeze.
- A cotton swab is removed from the well 30 minutes after surgery. If blood clotting is impaired, the tampon is left in place of the extracted tooth for an hour.
- To avoid bleeding, it is necessary to abandon the hot bath and physical exertion. You also need to make sure that the pressure does not increase.
- The area where the tooth was removed, do not touch the tongue or any hard objects.
- After the procedure, you can not smoke, because when sucking air a blood clot can come off.
- Brushing your teeth is allowed only on the following day after surgery.
To avoid possible complications, it is necessary follow all recommendations in the postoperative period. If there are unpleasant symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor in order to promptly begin the treatment of alveolitis.