Quite a few people, especially older ones, are faced with the irretrievable loss of their teeth, both some and all at once. Sometimes the loss of teeth is provoked by various injuries and dental diseases much earlier.
Previously, the problem of the absence of teeth was solved solely by installing removable dentures. However, now all over the world dentists practice a new method - implantation.
Features of removable dentures and implantation
Prosthetics has a number of significant downsides:
- the gum is damaged due to the pressure of the prosthesis on them;
- it is difficult to fix the denture on the lower jaw or adjust the bite;
- there are problems with diction;
- overnight dentures need to be removed.
The implantation method is relatively new and has been actively used since the 80s of the last century. Compared with prosthetics he has many advantages, but there are also features of implant installation:
- The jawbone must have a certain height.
- If it is not high enough, short and not very effective implants need to be implanted into the bone, it will take a lot of them all, and the time for engraftment will be from a month to six.
New methods of dental implants
There are several methods of implantation, both traditional and new, which very quickly help on both jaws to restore the entire teeth, while there is no need to restore implants on each tooth.
All over the world, medicine is actively developing, in particular, dentistry. Some methods of implantation are already outdated and almost never used:
- intra mucous;
Endodontic and laminar implants are no longer used, and anesthesia completely eliminates the discomfort during the operation. New modern implantation methods significantly shorten the preparation period and carrying out the procedure, and the period of healing of the soft tissues and engraftment of the implants will not be painful, as it was before.
The implantation technique “All on four”
This method of dental implants was developed by a Portuguese doctor, Malo, in the 80s after long trials and analytical work. It is quite simple and effective, based on the traditional implantation that exists before that, in our time, the technique has been improved by new technologies.
The essence of the method is as follows: four implants are implanted, then they put an artificial jaw. It all happens this way:
- The doctor chooses the implantation sites very carefully in order to distribute the pressure during chewing.
- Mainly put 2 front implant and 2 in the location of the five teeth.
- Implants are inserted at a 45-degree angle.
- This placement allows you to put long implants that do not penetrate into the region of the maxillary sinuses, although they are located next to them.
- Crowns are placed on implants by screwing, which reduces the pressure on the teeth along with the crowns.
- If the jawbone is short, the implants are implanted in 6 areas, which distributes the pressure even more evenly.
The “All in Four” implantation method will be effective if the jaw bone cannot be enlarged due to the long wearing of removable structures and the patient's age. However, he has his own contraindications:
- Diabetes first degree.
- Poor blood clotting.
- Diseases of the connective tissue and mucous membrane.
- Malignant tumors.
- Immunopathological position.
This type of implantation is significantly improves the appearance of a person, and not only the teeth, but also the shape of the face. If there are no teeth at all, then wrinkles appear around the mouth and cavities on the cheeks. The new method of implantation has the following advantages:
- restores the natural look of the face and gives it youth and volume;
- the feeling of natural teeth, and not the palate of the prosthesis;
- a person can smile broadly without feeling shy.
Features of laser implantation
One of the new methods of dental implantation is the installation of structures without the need to cut the gums. And also this method is also called express implantation. Instead of an incision, piercing is practiced predominantly in order to have access to the jaw bone tissue.
The doctor will not need to incise the soft tissues of the gums, flap back and stitches at the end of the process. All this happens thanks to enabling new technologies in dentistry, for example, drills for implantation in soft tissue and laser.
Laser implantation is least traumatic and bloodless way to work:
- It is not necessary to impose seams, as the dissected tissues are quickly burnt.
- The laser has an antiseptic effect.
- Healing is fast.
However, the use of a laser is not always as safe as it may seem. Not all dentists are unambiguous about this method. The reasons are as follows:
- The laser, like a scalpel, has limited functionality and is used for gingival resection, then drills are used. Not in all cases, the laser protects against infections. Basically, it has a disinfecting effect.
- When using a laser, the smell of burning skin will be present.
- Tooth survival, according to some experts, does not depend on the instrument used, it all depends on the shape of the implant, the material and the length of the artificial root, which must be chosen taking into account the special bone of the lower and upper jaw.
- Anesthesia is prescribed for both the laser and the scalpel.
- In both cases, the operation time is approximately the same.
- The cost of laser implantation will be slightly higher than with a scalpel.
With laser implantation, the installation of a single construction will last about 15 minutes, the engraftment increases while, but due to the lack of seams, practically no risk of inflammation adjacent soft tissue.
Types of implants and features of their choice
Each dental implant differs from each other depending on the manufacturer and its design. Private dental clinics mainly work with such foreign brands:
- Nobel Biocare.
- Astra Tech.
- Alpha Bio.
The cost depends on the manufacturer of the product. In Russia, one implant costs on average from 15 thousand rubles along with the work of a doctor. The cost of the crown depends on the material:
- metal ceramics costs starting from 10 thousand rubles;
- Zirconium dioxide crown - from 20 thousand rubles and above;
- metal-ceramic, equipped with gold plating - 55 thousand and above;
- metal-plastic - from 25 thousand rubles.
The shape of the implants are divided into the following:
- Subperiosteal - they are involved, if the bone tissue in the jaw is small. Titanium substitutes cannot be supplied due to insufficient height and width of the jaw. The designs themselves are placed on artificial bone, and there is no need to build up teeth.
- Root-shaped - suitable for those who have no problems with the fragility of bone matter. This type of construction is very similar to a real tooth. They are helical and cylindrical. In the first case, they are attached directly to the bone, and in the second, the engraftment is due to the porous material of the surface.
- Lamellar - if the patient's bone is strong, but not very wide for root-like implants, then lamellar constructions should be used. They have a narrow strip and elongated, which is commensurate with the size of the bone. After the gum is resected, an implant is placed in the area with the bone, and the crown is set six months later, during which time the foreign body adapts to the new environment.
- Intra mucous - these implants are made on the basis of two parts, the first of which is fixed on a removable prosthesis, and the second is installed in the oral mucosa. The implant point is a hole in the gum, made with the help of boron. The prosthesis is attached to the implant so that it can be removed later. Implants should be used if there are problems in the palatal structure, atrophy of the alveolar cord, and the thickness of the mucosa allows installation.
- Mini implants - they are suitable for those who have problems with the front dentition. Thanks to the titanium screw, such an implant is inserted quickly and painlessly.
Surgical template for dental implants
The new implantation differs from the old one in that it excludes a lot of unpleasant nuances, such as: long psychological discomfort; high risks of complications; problems associated with the fact that doctors had no experience.
New technologies in dentistry are such that the probability of implant rejection is up to five percent, one design set within 15 minutes, and medical errors are minimized.
The most progressive achievement in dental implantation is a surgical pattern. Under him understand high tech and accurate planning procedure that reduces all risks of medical errors to zero or problems during the procedure. Especially this technique is valuable in cases when you need to put several implants at once or to restore the entire dentition.
How is a surgical template created and what is its purpose? First of all, an orthopantomogram is made to the patient - panoramic x-ray dentition Then a person takes care of his business for several days, and a specialist is engaged in highly accurate planning of a future procedure.
In the modern orthopantomographic laboratory of the patient is done computer three-dimensional model jaws, on which the doctor calculates all the options and evaluates the proximity of the canals, nerves, neighboring roots, etc. Next, you need to make a plan for the installation of structures taking into account all factors and angles.
Such a model is a surgical template; on its basis, the dental technician makes castings of plaster, then on them temporary crowns are made, which the patient will put on implants during the procedure. Through the use of such a template, the doctor has the opportunity to calculate everything and minimize all possible risks.
As for anesthesia, if the implantation concerns a single tooth, local anesthetics are used, but general anesthesia is immediately prescribed for several teeth. Besides his used at the insistence of the patient.
Naturally, if there is a need for implantation of teeth, then you need to take the choice of a specialist very seriously. He should help you choose the right implant and choose the most appropriate procedure procedure.
The implantation of teeth in our time differs significantly from what was practiced thirty years ago; new advanced technology, allowing the patient to easily transfer the procedure without consequences.