Oral candidosis is an infectious disease caused by a yeast fungus of the genus Candida.
These bacteria are considered conditionally pathogenic because they are present in the human body for almost the whole of its life, without creating problems. They are found on the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx, in the vagina, in the intestines, and also on the skin. However, upon the occurrence of favorable conditions for their growth and development (reduced immunity), fungi are activated and become infectious agents.
Most often the disease affects infants. According to statistics, 20% of babies up to one year old have had thrushand some of them are not even once. There is a perception that candidiasis in children is easier to tolerate and is better treatable. But infection can also occur in adults, especially for older people (after 60 years). As a rule, this is due to the use of dental prostheses, under which favorable conditions arise for the active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms.
In addition, thrush in adults can develop against the background of reduced immunity. Among the adult population, women are most affected, as well as male smokers.
Recently observed increase in the incidence of candidiasis oral cavity. Experts explain this uncontrolled, and often not entirely justified intake of drugs that reduce immunity and disrupt the balance of microflora.
Types of oral candidiasis and the reasons for its occurrence
There are several forms of thrush:
- Acute Pseudomembranous. This form of the disease is the most common. Symptoms: pain in the mouth during a meal, as well as easily removed white plaque.
- Pseudomembranous chronic. It is often found in people with AIDS or HIV.
- Atrophic acute - affects the language. Symptoms: burning, dryness, discoloration of the tongue, pain in the oral cavity, plaque present only in the deepest folds or not at all.
- Atrophic chronic. It is often found in elderly people who use dentures. This form of the disease is characterized by mild symptoms, which can be seen only during the change of the prosthetic structure. Symptoms: inflammation of the palate, stuck, feeling of dry mouth, cracks, erosion.
- Defeat the corners of the mouth may accompany another form of the disease or represent a separate category. Symptoms: buns with crusts or with a touch of white.
- Hyperplastic chronic. Most common in smoking patients. Signs: tight bloom on the tongue or in the palate.
- Candida cheilitis. This is a rather rare form of candidiasis, expressed in the lesion of the inner side of the lower lip.
Causes of candidiasis
There are many factors contributing to the activation of fungi and the development of the disease:
- Taking drugs that suppress the immune system of the body. These are cytostatics and corticosteroids.
- Pregnancy. In this state, the woman has a change in metabolism and hormonal levels, as well as a decrease in immunity.
- Long-term use of antibiotics. Such drugs contribute to the violation of the composition of microflora.And, accordingly, the ratio of microorganisms changes. The bacteria resistant to antibiotics, having no competitors, begin to multiply actively.
- Weakening of the immune system, deficiency of immune cells.
- Comorbidities: diseases of the digestive system and adrenal glands, tuberculosis, HIV.
- Often, oral thrush in adults signals the onset of diabetes.
- The use of dentures, especially in cases where they are unprofessionally installed and injure the oral mucosa. Acrylic constructions can provoke an allergic reaction that promotes the penetration of microorganisms into the cells.
- Radiation therapy in oncology patients.
- Dysbacteriosis and vitamin B deficiency, C and PP.
- Oral contraceptives that violate hormones, resulting in favorable conditions for the growth and development of the fungus.
- Bad habits: drugs, alcohol. These substances contribute to the destruction of balance and lower immunity.
- Minor mechanical damage to the oral mucosa. They may appear as a result of exposure to damaged teeth or improper bite.
In addition, oral candidiasis can get infected through contact with a sick person. For example, this can occur when using a shared toothbrush or dishes, as well as during sexual intercourse and kiss.
Also, a thrush can get a newborn baby while passing through the birth canal of the mother.
Symptoms of oral candidiasis
A characteristic sign of oral candidiasis is white snow flake covering the mucous membrane of the cheeks and tongue. If a woman suffered from this disease, being in a state of pregnancy - no doubt, oral candidiasis will also be found in a newborn child.
Oral form of thrush does not carry any danger for the sick, subject to timely treatment at the clinic and proper treatment.
In some cases, white scurf formed in the mouth, can go to the larynx. A pinkish-red sore may appear in the tongue. In addition, the patient has difficulty in swallowing food, there is a feeling of discomfort and pain in the mouth, as well as cracks around the mouth, taste sensations disappear and even small bleeding can occur.
In severe forms of the disease, foci of deposition of plaque take the form of a homogeneous film-like surface, which, after a while, becomes thicker and spreads throughout the oral cavity.
There are the following main symptoms of oral candidiasis:
- Increased body temperature;
- pain syndrome;
- feeling of obstruction of food and difficulty in swallowing;
- itching and burning of the mouth;
- loss of taste or the feeling of metallic taste in the mouth;
- white bloom.
Diagnosis of candidiasis
Candidiasis is diagnosed based on laboratory results (quantitative analysis of the degree of damage to the mouth, research scraping with the power of the microscope, seeding for candidiasis with the determination of the sensitivity of the fungus to medical drugs).
Examination by the dentist of the oral cavity of the patient reveals lesions characteristic of thrush. In some cases, you may need to consult an infectious diseases specialist, pediatrician, allergist, immunologist, therapist, endocrinologist.
The specialist may recommend that you undergo additional tests to confirm the diagnosis. For example, donate blood for analysis in order to identify certain pathologies associated with oral candidiasis (lack of nutrients, diabetes, etc.). In addition, there may be biopsy is prescribed, that is, taking a sample of the oral mucosa from the affected area to identify Candida white fungus.
Treatment of oral candidiasis in adults
For the effectiveness of treatment of thrush, specialists carry out a reorganization of the oral cavity, take measures to increase the specific and nonspecific protection, and also recommend a balanced diet. In addition, additional examination by a therapist is required. Treatment of diseases of visceral candidiasis, as well as generalized candidiasis is carried out by mycologists.
It should be noted that for the effective treatment of the underlying pathology, it is necessary to diagnose and conduct treatment of associated diseases. Such illnesses include diabetes, pathology of the gastrointestinal tract and leukemia.
For the treatment of oral candidiasis The following methods are used:
- Rational nutrition with the intake of a complex of vitamins and reducing the amount of carbohydrates.
- To reduce dry mouth, as well as to influence the pathogenic flora, a solution of potassium iodide is used.
- A specialist is prescribed antifungal drugs (Nystatin, Levorin). Since the tablets are poorly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, they must first be crushed or placed under the tongue until they are completely absorbed.
- Dekamine, which comes in the form of caramel, gives a good effect. The so-called candy is laid behind the cheeks and under the tongue. It is not recommended to move the tongue so that the caramels are in the mouth as long as possible.
- Diflucan and Amoglucan - for ingestion.
- Iron supplements are also prescribed (Ferroplex, Conference).
- In addition, during the month it is recommended to take calcium gluconate, which relieves allergies and has a tonic effect. Pipolfen, Dimedrol, Suprastin, Fenkrol are prescribed as antiallergic drugs.
- To strengthen the immune system and a speedy recovery, a vaccine is prescribed, and also drugs such as Pentoxyl Methyluracil are used.
For the treatment of cheilitis and yeast jam Decamine ointment (0.5%), Levorin ointment (5%) and Nystatin ointment. Ointment must be used alternately.
The red border of lips and a mucous membrane of a mouth cavity is processed by solution of aniline dyes.
For lubrication of the mouth and applications, use the solution of Clotrimazole (1%) Amphotericin B ointment (1%) and Dekaminovaya ointment (0.5%).
Rinse with p-rum boric acid (2%), sodium bicarbonate solution (2%), borax solution (2-5%).
How to treat oral candidiasis with folk remedies
There are many recipes of traditional medicine, which in combination with traditional methods of therapy give a good result.
First of all, it is necessary review diet, as the diet plays an important role in the treatment of thrush. Food should be balanced with a high content of fiber. For the period of treatment, refuse to eat simple carbohydrates (rice, white bread, etc.), since such a diet will accelerate the growth and development of the fungus.
Onions and garlic have excellent antifungal properties. Use a combination of them when cooking, and also use these ingredients in their raw form as bite to main dishes.
Restore the number of bacteria necessary for the body will help products or supplements containing probiotic. The healthy microorganisms that have accumulated as a result of this will naturally save you from candidiasis.
Especially a lot of good bacteria in yogurt. It consists of acidophilus, which belongs to the group of bacteria that help contain the growth of the fungus. In addition, there are special additives with acidophilus, produced in the form of capsules. They need to be taken until full recovery several times a day.
The following options are used for rinsing the mouth:
- Broth celandine, juniper, birch buds and chamomile;
- viburnum juice;
- tincture of calendula (1 tsp. tincture in a glass of water);
- cranberry juice;
- carrot juice.
Affected areas of the mucosa Lubricated with the following products:
- Decoction of oak bark;
- juice of wormwood, celandine, euphorbia, garlic or onion;
- spirit tincture of juniper shoots.
During the whole period of treatment of thrush, it is recommended to eat only semi-warm and semi-liquid dishes. At the end of therapy, it is advisable to adhere to the recommended diet by the doctor for a few more months.
Do not delay the treatment of candidiasis, because it can lead to the emergence of other, more serious diseases that require enhanced treatment. Therefore, when the first signs of thrush appear, you should immediately contact your dentist for quality therapy.