Candidiasis or thrush can develop in children even in the first days of life, even in a newborn baby. Curdled white bloom in the mouth of a newborn (on the gums, tongue) worries the baby and scares the young mother. And it is quite logical that almost all parents who have encountered this problem are looking in the medical literature and on the Internet for a description of similar symptoms of the disease, look at photos with similar symptoms, trying to determine what the disease is and how it can be cured, whether it is transmitted and how dangerous.
Causes of thrush in children
Fungi of the Candida group provoke the appearance of the disease. It is for this reason that the disease is also called candidal stomatitis. Where do these fungi come from? Candida is in the body of absolutely any person, not showing itself until a certain time. The impetus for the appearance of thrush can be medication, a weakened immune system and many other factors.
Fungi affect not only the oral cavity, but also other organs, therefore it is important to start treating the disease in time so that it does not pass from the oral cavity into the body.
Typically, the appearance of thrush cause these types of fungi:
- C. glabrata - provokes the appearance of the disease in the elderly;
- C. parapsilosia - found in 50% of newborns;
- C. albicans - is found in the body in 70% of adults and is most often the cause of thrush;
- C. sake is a rare group of fungi.
What triggers the appearance of thrush?
The most common infection of the child comes from the mother. Often, the fungus moves from the mother to her child during childbirth: the child passes through the birth canal of the mother, while the fungus from the mother remains on its mucous membranes in the mouth and skin.
In addition, the appearance of thrush in children can provoke such factors:
- viral infections;
- allergic dermatitis;
- bowel disease;
- dirty nipples, dishes, toys;
- constant use of the nipples;
- failure to hygiene mom;
- frequent regurgitation: sensitivity of the oral mucosa and acidic conditions are excellent conditions for the appearance of thrush;
- antibacterial drugs.
Attention: babies who are breastfed are less likely to get thrush than babies who eat mixtures.
In adolescence, thrush in children, as a rule, appears amid hormonal changes, and also because of frequent colds and hypothermia.
Stages of development of candidal stomatitis
It is sometimes difficult to determine the symptoms of the disease in a child, since thrush is often simply taken for the remaining porridge or milk on the oral mucosa. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically inspect the mouth of the child in order to timely detect the presence of plaque and rash. The disease has several stages, we list each of them.
At this stage of the thrush in children, small red specks appear in the mouth. Over time, these spots become covered with a cheesy white bloom.If you determine thrush in a newborn in your mouth at this stage, then it does not bring the child much discomfort and can be easily treated at home.
- white film on the oral mucosa;
- if you try to remove the film, the mucous will bleed;
- in some cases, the oral mucosa has swelling.
Cheesy spots gradually increase and connect with each other, filling the entire oral cavity. The main symptom at this stage is bleeding and painful ulcers under bloom. At this time, the baby gets sick to swallow or suck, he may refuse to eat.
- a dense bloom appears on the tongue;
- a child may lose his sense of taste;
- the corners of the mouth are covered with cracks.
At this stage, the sores actively begin to bleed. The raid moves to the gums, cheeks, throat, palate, tongue. The baby’s mouth is completely covered with white film, the child feels a lot of pain and discomfort.
At this stage, the general well-being of the baby is significantly deteriorating, the temperature may increase to 37-38 degrees.
The main forms of candidal stomatitis
There are two main forms of thrush in children.
During the acute form of thrush affects the oral cavity, provokes the appearance of plaque, appears dry mouth. Plaque consists of yeast fungi, epithelial cells, food debris.
Over time, the plaque increases, cracks with bloom appear in the corners of the lips. Often in children the lymph nodes become larger, and during palpation, the child feels very painful.
At this time, children have noted:
- pain and discomfort while eating;
During the acute development of thrush in children it is important to establish the diagnosis correctly and not to confuse it with other diseases:
Chronic thrush is characterized by a bloom of yellow or brown. If you try to remove the plaque, it will cause bleeding and severe pain. The oral cavity swells, and cervical lymph nodes increase in size.
This form of thrush is treated for quite a long time, so there is no need to bring the child to this state and start treatment in a timely manner.
Diagnosis of the disease
In order to establish the diagnosis correctly, a doctor needs to take a swab from the baby’s mouth. After this smear is applied to a special glass and dried. The doctor paints the glass and performs the examination with a microscope. Diagnosis can only be made when colonies of fungi that cause thrush in children in the mouth are identified.
Treatment for thrush
Treatment of thrush in newborns is complicated by the fact that the baby is still unable to speak and is not able to describe his complaints and sensations to adults. Therefore, mothers of newborns need to be extremely attentive and seek help from a doctor for any symptoms.
If thrush appeared due to frequent regurgitationthen you need to identify and eliminate the cause of this phenomenon. Probably, the child incorrectly captures the nipple or nipple during feeding, as a result of which air enters the intestine. Follow the feeding technique, and also surely carry the baby “column” after any meal, thus, excess air comes out.
Topical treatment of thrush in newborns
To remove the fungus, it is necessary to treat the baby's mouth with such means.
Dilute one teaspoon of soda in a cup of warm water. In this solution, soak a cotton swab and clean the oral cavity. It is necessary to process everything: cheeks, tongue, sky, gums. Try to perform this procedure as often as possible during the day. If you determine thrush at an early stage, then there are great chances to get rid of the disease with the help of these simple manipulations in one week.
How can a simple soda help get rid of the fungus in the mouth? Soda solution makes the oral shell alkaline, which is unfavorable conditions for the life of the fungus. He can not develop here and eventually dies.
Similarly, you can use a light composition of potassium permanganate.
As a rule, the treatment of infants is performed only by local treatment of the oral cavity and shows excellent results. Antifungal agents are prescribed to these babies infrequently.
Treatment of children from six months
Many remedies for the treatment of thrush in the mouth are used for children from the age of 6 months. Until this age, only local treatment is recommended.
When the thrush has become severe, it is often the only effective method of treatment is to take antifungal agents, as well as drugs, where iron is present. The principle of operation of antifungal agents is based on the destruction of the membranes of a viral fungus.
Any drugs are required to prescribe only a doctor after the examination. Do not complete the treatment even when the signs of the fungus are gone. If the doctor prescribes to treat the cavity in the mouth for 12 days, then use the ointment all 12 days. Viral infection is unpredictable and relapse often occurs. Treatment ends only after re-examination.
Treatment of adolescents
For the treatment of adolescents can be prescribed by a doctor. use medications. The following are the most common treatments for thrush in the mouth:
- Nystatin. An effective drug that is made in the form of tablets and ointment. This drug is prescribed, as a rule, for the treatment of severe thrush. The tool can cause allergic reactions, so you need to carefully monitor the condition of the child during treatment. The main advantage of Nystatin is that the fungus virus slowly “gets used” to this drug.
- Miramistin. Antibacterial agent with a wide range of effects. This drug can be purchased as a solution or ointment. The solution should be carefully treated oral cavity, and ointment should be a thin layer to lubricate the affected areas. The tool has no smell and taste, because, as a rule, it is normally tolerated by children. In addition, it does not irritate the mucous cavity in the mouth. If to apply means along with antibiotics, then it has the best effect from use of the last.
- Diflucan. Antifungal agent, effectively coping with thrush.
- Candide. This is an ointment that is similar in its effects to Nystatin. She needs to treat the baby's mouth.
- Clotrimazole. Also an effective drug against thrush.
Careful and attentive care for mucous membranes and skin is needed, especially in case of childhood infections and common diseases. Of paramount importance is the timely treatment of associated diseases and the informed use of antibacterial agents. Also important is timely and adequate treatment of thrush in mothers during pregnancy.
For the prevention of thrush infants allocate risk groupsthat must be examined:
- newborns who suffer from encephalopathy, respiratory distress syndrome, and those who have suffered from the birth canal;
- physiologically immature and premature newborns born with various malformations and deformities;
- newborns born to mothers who suffer from thrush and have foci of chronic infection, with aggravated gynecological and obstetric history (mother has gynecological pathologies, for example, inflammatory, difficult labor, etc.).
To protect against baby thrush, you need observe the following guidelines:
- by all means periodically wash the breasts with soap and water when the baby is breastfeeding;
- sterilize nipples, pacifiers;
- you need time to treat the disease before and during pregnancy, so as not to infect the baby with thrush;
- monitor the condition of the gastrointestinal tract of the child;
- during the eruption of the first teeth, care must be taken for them;
- increase the immunity of the baby;
- time to treat viral diseases.
Thrush can rarely provoke the occurrence of complications, since modern drugs make it possible to effectively and quickly treat this disease. However, there may be times when running thrush in the mouth may cause quite serious consequences:
- getting into the stomach, fungi violate the natural process of absorption of beneficial elements;
- the virus can severely damage the lining of the esophagus and the oral cavity, which causes discomfort and pain during eating;
- the fungal virus from the oral cavity gradually passes to other organs: lungs, liver and gastrointestinal tract.
Thrush in children is not so harmless disease, as it may seem at first glance. The appearance of this disease is even more dangerous. in infancy. If you turn to a specialist at the first symptoms of thrush, you can significantly reduce the time of its treatment and prevent possible complications.