The oral cavity is a complex part of the body, which primarily encounters various microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses). This feature causes the development of a large range of diseases, accompanied not only by an unpleasant set of symptoms (pain, foul odor, bleeding, etc.), but also by changing the aesthetic appearance of teeth (staining of enamel in black, yellow, brown or green shades). One of these pathologies is Priestley's plaque, in children it occurs 8-10 times more often than in adults. Treatment of deviations has many specific features depending on the cause of the occurrence.
What it is
Priestley's onset is the result of the active development and vital activity of the pigment-forming bacteria. It is the appearance of many black or brown-brown stains on the teeth. All open enamel surfaces are usually affected. The condition is accompanied by an unpleasant smell with a sweetish tint emanating from the oral cavity.
It is important! In 95% of cases, only milk teeth are involved in the process. After their loss and gradual replacement with constant manifestations of the disease disappear due to changes in the microflora of the oral cavity (complete destruction of pathogenic microorganisms).
Normally, there are over 160 different types of microorganisms in the oral cavity. This anatomical segment is the most contaminated.
Unicellular life forms enter different paths:
- With food;
- With water;
- From the surrounding air;
- In contact with various surfaces (bringing to the mouth of toys and other items).
Due to optimal conditions of existence (favorable temperature, high humidity, alkaline environment, sufficient oxygen, plenty of nutrients from food), microorganisms are able to sustain their colonies for a long time.
An additional advantage for the life of bacteria, viruses and fungi are the multiple folds of the mucous membrane, the gaps between the teeth and the pockets of the gums, which are teeming with desquamated epithelial cells and rotting food debris. All the described features create a constantly replenished “warehouse of nutrients” that are essential for the reproduction and active growth of the pathogenic flora.
It is important! 1 gram of plaque on the teeth contains more than 300,000,000,000 microbes, 1 ml of saliva - about 900,000,000.
Under certain conditions, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora of the oral cavity undergoes changes, pigment-forming representatives begin to multiply actively. These include:
- Gram-positive sticks of the Prevotella and Porphyromonas genera;
- N. Flavescens and pha-ryngis;
- Representatives of the Actinomycetaceae family (including corinobacteria).
It is important! Colonies of certain types or all together cause the formation of dark scurf, which can have a whole range of shades: from yellowish or greenish to dark brown or black.
However, such phenomena are not characteristic of every child. There are a number of predisposing factors that significantly increase the risk of developing adverse events:
- Hereditary predisposition Several large randomized studies conducted in the United States have proven the involvement of individual genes in creating optimal conditions for the growth of bacteria.
- Features of oral hygiene.The lack of regular brushing of the teeth and tongue, the use of poor-quality or spoiled food, the abuse of bad habits significantly increase the incidence of the disease.
- Dysbacteriosis against the background of inadequate work of the gastrointestinal tract (failure of the esophago-gastric sphincter, severe liver disease with the development of deficiency) or uncontrolled use of antibacterial drugs.
- For caries. The destruction of tooth enamel by bacteria violates all physiological and metabolic processes in the lesion.
- Congenital anomalies and malformations of the teeth. The most common cause is enamel hypoplasia (underdevelopment of the outer layer).
- Insufficient intake or defects in the assimilation of the most important macro- and microelements (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron). It is proved that in persons born to women with anemia during pregnancy, in the absence of appropriate therapy, pathology is detected 2.5–3 times more often.
- Defects of the immune system. Failure can be at any level involving both local and general protection factors.
- Excessive consumption of sugar-containing products. Sweet environment creates ideal conditions for the reproduction of staphylococci and neisserii.
- Pathology of bite and formation of the facial skeleton. As a result, some parts of the tooth enamel are in the zone of increased stress and are destroyed, the areas of destruction are quickly populated with pathogenic flora.
It is important! In any case, the basis of the pathology is a violation of the normal microflora of the oral cavity with excessive development of pigment-producing microorganisms and a decrease in the number of conditionally pathogenic and beneficial bacteria.
The appearance of black plaque on the teeth in adults may be due to the influence of specific factors. These include:
- Smoking. More than 900 resins that make up the tobacco product, not only form the dark areas of pigmentation, but also reduce the reactivity of the immune system.
- Abuse of coffee and liquor.
- Systematic contact with heavy metals in the process of carrying out production activities.
- Drug use.
- Long course of chronic somatic diseases.
There are many traditional methods of treatment, but they are not recommended to use, as the pathology is serious and threatening the health of teeth. It is also strictly forbidden to get rid of overlaps by rude means that are extremely common among the population:
- Scraping of a raid with a knife, blade and other objects;
- The use of toothbrushes with hard bristles;
- Use of abrasive cleaners with large items.
It is important! Such methods create an illusion of healing for the time being, but the problem returns in the future, as the areas of the tooth enamel are damaged even more.
At the dentist
Depending on the factors that are leading in the appearance of areas of darkening on the tooth enamel, appropriate treatment is prescribed:
- Caries. With a minor lesion, the removal of pathological areas of enamel with the imposition of fillings is made, and with massive lesions, a tooth is removed.
- Shortage of valuable biologically active substances. Calcium preparations (Calcemin), magnesium, iron (Maltofer, Sorbifer), fluoride toothpastes (Elgidium) are prescribed.
- Malformations of the maxillofacial region. A consultation with a plastic surgeon is shown, during which a decision is made on further treatment tactics.
It is important! In the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or the immune system, appropriate treatment is provided by a gastroenterologist, allergist, immunologist and other specialists.
In the absence of contraindications and the age of the patient from the age of 14, non-invasive therapies may be involved:
- Laser enamel cleaning. After the preliminary hygienic treatment of the teeth, the laser is applied, then the remnants of the plaque are washed out with an air-droplet jet. For complete removal of black microparticles, sanding is carried out with low-abrasive nozzles.
- Exposure to ultrasound. Due to the vibrations created by the special device, the plaque cracks and is easily removed from the surface of the masticatory elements.
Home methods can be used only as part of complex therapy and in no case as a separate method of treatment. The following options for eliminating the raid have proven themselves well:
- Active solution prepared on the basis of hydrogen peroxide (200 ml) and activated carbon (5–6 tablets). It is necessary to apply the composition to all teeth for 10–15 minutes 1-2 times a week.
- A mixture of grated radish and lemon peel at the rate of 1 to 1. Substance must be homogeneous consistency. The resulting gruel should be chewed for several minutes 1-2 times a day, and then spit out.
- Rinse the mouth with a solution of natural honey (1 tsp. Of bee products per 250 ml of boiled or distilled water).
- Massaging tea tree oil into the gums. This method allows not only to reduce the strength of dark plaque with an unpleasant smell, but also contributes to the prevention of inflammatory diseases of the gums.
It is important! The maximum duration of treatment is 7 days. For the purpose of prophylaxis, it is allowed to carry out traditional methods of therapy once every 2 weeks.
Among the adverse events in the absence of timely access to a specialist or inadequate therapy include:
- The appearance of bad breath, which is a factor in social maladjustment.
- The formation of tartar - hardened plaque, which is extremely difficult to remove.
- The disintegration of the enamel and the progression of any carious processes, followed by complete loss of teeth.
- Periodontitis Due to the involvement of the mucous membrane of the gums and the transition of the infectious-inflammatory process on the periodontal tissue (alveolar process of the jaw).
- Increasing the sensitivity of teeth to sudden temperature changes (hot-cold and vice versa) and certain food irritants (sweet, sour, salty).
- The development of chronic gingivitis, bleeding gums.
The best way to prevent any disease is prevention. It is strictly forbidden to use any tooth powders, which are not only the source of bacteriological seeding of the oral cavity, but also destroy the open areas of the tooth enamel.
Preference should be given to hygienic pastes containing many pharmacological additives. Allocate:
- Anti-carious pastes;
- Pastes that affect the soft tissue (gums, mucous membranes);
- Pastes that help eliminate unpleasant plaque and tartar;
- Whitening cleaners.
It is important! Combined (multiple approach to the treatment of a single pathology) or complex (effective against a whole spectrum of diseases) toothpastes are in the greatest demand.
The most qualitative representatives of this group of funds are:
Other methods of hygiene care are selected individually during a visit to the dentist and include:
- Teaching a child to clean the teeth at the age of 12 months. In the first 2–3 years of life, parents can help with cleaning, while using a brush with a thin head and only a flat working field. All movements must be progressive and sweeping. It is allowed to use electronic toothbrushes that have a safety certificate (for example, Oral-B Vitality CrossAction). Be sure to teach your child to spit out the remnants of toothpaste. Brush hardness level - soft or medium.
- Rinse the mouth with liquid products. Such methods are recommended to apply from the age of 10 due to the large number of local disorders: burning, discomfort, tingling on the mucous membrane, etc. Such solutions as Listerin, Eludril have recommended themselves well.
- Do not eat after the last tooth brushing.
- Undergo a preventive examination at the dentist at least once every 6 months, as well as promptly treat any diseases of the oral cavity (caries, traumatic destruction of a tooth, etc.).
In order to normalize the state of enamel, a diet is recommended. The following foods should be included in the diet:
- Seeds and nuts. Natural abrasives effectively remove plaque and other pathological stains from teeth. Products also contain many beneficial vitamins that help to strengthen the immune system.
- Apples and pears. The fruit contains water with dissolved acids that destroy almost all pathogenic microorganisms.
- Strawberry. Improves enamel color with malic acid.
- Broccoli. Vegetable is effective precisely in relation to the raid Priestley.
It is important! It is necessary to exclude the use of coffee, strong tea, carbonated drinks, concentrated juices. The products described affect the enamel of the teeth and contribute to its destruction.
Adults should not eat the following foods or try to limit them as much as possible due to the high risk of developing pathological plaque and oral dysbiosis:
|Title||Characteristic adverse action|
|Spices, sauces||The deposition of pigments in the pores of the enamel with its subsequent softening.|
|Bright berries (blueberries, blackberries)||Change the color of the filling material, improve the conditions of existence of staphylococci and streptococci.|
|Hard sweet foods||The formation of a sticky film on the teeth, reducing the resistance of enamel to external stimuli of any nature.|
|Red wines||Change the color of enamel, increase the frequency of development of calcifications in the tissues of the gums.|
Video: Priestley's Raid
The appearance of any overlaps on the teeth, including Priestley's raid, is a problem that anyone can face. You can not try to get rid of the disease on their own, you need to promptly contact the dentist. Only a doctor will be able to identify the causes and conduct adequate therapy. The specialist will also appoint a set of measures to prevent the state in the future.