Dental crowns are the most popular method of prosthetics for various defects, trauma or other destruction of the dentition. Consider the features of different variants of crowns for the teeth, the preparatory process and the installation of this product itself, as well as possible complications and some nuances of removing the prostheses.
Why do I need to put a dental crown?
People who have lost their teeth, especially in a particularly visible part, do not ask: "Why do I need to put a dental crown?". However, there are times when there is a need to install the crown, even if all teeth are available:
- Natural human teeth are prone to defects in color or shape and do not look very attractive. Crowns for teeth can fix these problems, giving aesthetics to a smile.
- The natural dental crown is broken as a result of a significant carious disease or injury, but the root is in place and has the ability to play a supporting role. In this embodiment, you can put the crown directly on the dental root with a stump (if a sufficient amount of natural tissue is preserved). Or it is required for prosthetics to use tabs or pins, which can create reliable stability of the whole structure.
- During periodontal lesions of the teeth, there is sometimes a risk of increased teeth reeling. Moreover, it is possible to install temporary crowns, which will keep the teeth in place until full recovery.
- All the teeth are preserved, but the pathological destruction of enamel occurs. In this case, the crown is necessary to protect the dental tissues from the action of adverse factors.
Varieties of dental crowns
Today, dentists offer patients several types of dentures, made from different materials and having certain pros and cons.
Dental crowns made of different metals are considered to be the classic method of prosthetics and have been used for many years. The most common method of prosthetics is gold crowns.
The advantages of gold teeth are their reliability, durability and long life. These crowns not susceptible to oxidation, and their coefficient of erasure is closest to human enamel, it does not create deformation of antagonist teeth during chewing food. The disadvantage of these prostheses is one - a rather unattractive appearance, because, as a rule, they are placed in a part invisible to other people.
Metal ceramics combines all the advantages of porcelain and metal products. These crowns have excellent aesthetic characteristics, reliable and durable. The price of these crowns is much lower than for all-ceramic products. The disadvantages include the need before installing the preparation of a large area of their own dental tissues, as well as high enamel erosion risk on prostheses.Moreover, during a low landing of the edge of the gum or the incorrect manufacture of the prosthesis itself, there is the possibility of a visible metal band.
Porcelain or ceramic
All-ceramic non-metal prostheses are considered the most aesthetic. They best imitate natural teeth and do not lose their performance even after a long time. However, ceramics is a very fragile material and may not hold a strong load during chewing. Therefore, they are placed, as a rule, on the front dentition. The disadvantages include the high price of products.
The attachment of prostheses to the front row of teeth
Prostheses for the front teeth must be strong and aesthetically appealing. What is usually used metal ceramics and ceramics. Most people tend to install metal ceramics, given the best price / quality ratio. It is also necessary to add that the process of fitting, preparing, measuring, and fixing the prosthesis to the anterior dentition is no different from the standard algorithm. You need to be prepared for the likely negative and temporary complications:
- The color difference of the prosthesis - appears during the installation of one prosthesis on the front tooth. Can be restored by using special pastes.
- Darkening of the gums - after fixation of the prosthesis, some people experience cyanosis of the gums, which disappears when the body is rehabilitated after the introduction of the material.
Preparing to install the crown
Dental crown preparation procedure has a number of stages:
- Determining the state of the oral cavity and the clinical picture of a person. At this stage, the amount of work to be done is determined, the type of prosthesis is discussed and a treatment plan is developed.
- If required, treatment of caries, periodontal disease, inflammatory diseases of the gums is performed. On the abutment teeth, old fillings will certainly change to new ones.
- When metal ceramics is intended to be installed, then, as a rule, the tooth is removed to avoid inflammatory lesions.
- Tooth preparation - removal of hardened tissues of different thickness using special tools. For metal prostheses, it is necessary to remove 0.30 mm of dentin and enamel, and during the installation of metal-ceramic, the layer for removal can be up to 1.9 mm. In addition, for stronger attachment of the prosthesis, preparation of teeth with a large indentation is required.
- Then, when the teeth are prepared and cured, imprints are made using a special paste, taking into account that prostheses are made in a technical dental laboratory and individually.
- When the crown is made, a number of fittings are made, where they determine the accuracy of the prosthesis, its convenience of location and compliance with the colors and texture of other teeth. Often, the finished prosthesis is fixed on the cement temporarily. This requires that the person is fully satisfied with the comfort of the crown and its proper operation during chewing.
How to install a denture: the stages and technique of attachment
Installation and fastening of the prosthesis considered final stage:
- When the crown is removed from the temporary cement, it is thoroughly cleaned.
- The parried tooth stump is sandblasted to impart microroughness.
- The last fitting is performed, and the dentist makes sure that the crown is positioned correctly, does not interfere with the normal closing of the jaws.
- Special cement is applied to the inside of the prosthesis, the crown is put on the tooth. Then the structure is exposed to a special lamp, which accelerates the hardening process.
- Carefully removed all unnecessary parts of the cement, as even a small amount causes inflammation and irritation of the gums.
Already after an hour, the established prosthesis can be chewed. And the greatest pressure can be created on the crown the next day.
Fasteners with locks
One of the most promising technologies in prosthetics is considered to be the fastening of crowns with the help of locks. This mounting option allows you to grind out the abutment teeth with minimal losses, it makes it easier to remove or install the prosthesis. The fastening of these crowns begins with fasteners with the help of cement dental locks, which play a supporting function, with further installation and fastening of the prosthesis.
Fasteners crowns on implants
This type of prosthetics does not require treatment of nearby teeth. Directly design can be put in several ways:
- Cement fastening, in this case, the abutment is first attached to the implanted root, then a prosthesis is attached to it with the help of cement. This method is better suited if several crowns are simultaneously prosthetic.
- By screw fastening, in this case the prosthesis is fixed with an abutment adapter outside the oral cavity. Then the whole structure is screwed to the implant with a screw passing through the hole in the crown. Then the channel is closed with a material for sealing. This option is best suited for single dentures.
Opinion of doctors
To fix a single denture on the tooth - requires support. In the role of support can use the tip of your healthy tooth, fixed implant or root tab.
During the installation of a denture on your tooth, it is desirable to perform with a ledge. This method of prosthetics consists in creating a special step near the base of the dental tissue, then the prosthesis is worn on top.
Naturally, this version of prosthetics is considered more complex. But it gives the opportunity to distribute the pressure on the tooth, as a result, the aesthetics improves and the time of its operation is prolonged. Moreover, there will be no pathology. in the form of blue gums, because cermet, located on the prosthesis, is not subject to contact with the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.
How to remove a denture?
Removing prosthetic teeth is not a simple manipulation, especially if you need to fully preserve the crown for subsequent installation on the previous site.
If it is necessary to remove the prosthesis due to its failure, when the repair of the crown is not considered, then it is cut with the help of special tools and removed from the tooth stump.
To save the crown during the removal of the tooth created such dental devices:
- Tongs - a tool that allows you to firmly fix the prosthesis between the brashes and remove it from the tooth.
- Crown collectors (the most popular type of instrument - Kopp's hook) are flat-shaped hooks, with a manual or automatic mechanism, which makes it possible to apply some force during the fixation on the tooth section with the prosthesis and remove it.
- Today in dentistry, dentures are removed using ultrasound equipment. During the passage of a special tip near the junction of the crown with the base of the stump, ultrasound creates cracking and crumbling of the cement, then it is removed without much effort.
- Another gentle way to remove dentures is the use of pneumatic tools, under the influence of which the crumbling of the cement and the discharge of the crown from the stump also begin.
Possible complications when installing a dental crown
After prosthetics, probably the emergence of various complications:
- Caries support stump. This complication can occur when the disease is not completely cured during preparation, or if there is insufficient oral hygiene, in this case food remains and plaque are collected under the crown, which are nutrients for carious organisms.
- Prosthetic stomatitis resulting from significant crown pressure on gum tissue.What creates a violation of blood circulation, the formation of pressure sores and the death of mucosal tissue at the site of contact with the prosthesis. Prevention of this disease consists in creating a "wash channel" - a small gap at the edge of the gums.
- Galvanic syndrome - appears if crowns with different metals are installed in the mouth. This can lead to the formation of galvanic current, which stimulates oxidative processes. Symptoms of complications are malaise, unpleasant steel taste of saliva, change in the color of the prosthesis and a number of teeth, constant headache.
- Allergy to materials that were used during prosthetics. The first signs of it can occur as immediately after attaching the crown, and after a certain time. Symptoms of allergy are: a rash on the skin and mucous membranes, a burning sensation and dryness in the mouth.
The manifestation of any of the complications, especially if the tooth starts to hurt under the prosthesis, needs immediate attention to your dentist. Delay can be fraught with tooth loss, where the crown. As a rule, complications involve removing the crown and performing re-prosthetics.
During the prosthesis, which dentures to put and which teeth will be the supporting teeth, only the patient determines. But at the same time, it is imperative to listen to the recommendations of your dentist and fully comply with all his advice and recommendations.