About the need for oral hygiene, everyone probably heard. However, not everyone is able to tell how to properly brush their teeth. Moreover, it often happens that people do not care about their teeth, referring to the example of the older generation, and what it will lead to, do not think about it. The purpose of this article is to tell about the need for such cleansing, to acquaint with its rules and to reveal important nuances.
Why is it necessary
Effectively chewing food and maintaining a beautiful smile is possible only with healthy teeth. Cleaning helps to keep them so. The fact is that after 2-3 hours after a meal, a soft patina forms on the teeth. It is based on randomly located food remains and bacterial cells. The latter are responsible for the release of propionic, formic and buty acids that are dangerous to the condition of the tooth enamel.
During the first days of the formation of the scurf, it does not have close contact with the enamel and can be peeled off. Then it is compacted, and the bacteria contained in it continue to multiply, which leads to dire consequences. And if you do not brush your teeth for a long time:
- Mild plaque becomes tartar - yellow-brown deposits that contribute to the development of disease processes in the oral cavity. Often accompanied by a nasty smell from the mouth and bleeding gums.
- Constant contact with plaque leads to caries. There are four forms of it. The first is a carious stain, when the enamel is not yet destroyed, but already becomes cloudy. The second is superficial, accompanied by dark pigmentation and the detection of softening of the enamel. Outwardly, such a lesion has the form of a spot with a rough bottom brown or dirty gray. The third is medium when enamel and dentin are affected. Fourth - deep, when all the tissues of the tooth are affected, or the latter is completely destroyed. In caries, there is an acute course - with a simultaneous lesion of a number of teeth, as well as the most acute - with the lesion of almost all teeth with several lesions in each. Often caries is accompanied by acute pain when the affected tooth comes into contact with sour, cold or sweet food.
- Another consequence of constant contact with plaque is inflammation in the tissues of the gums. The gums become looser, their connection with the teeth is broken, the plaque penetrates even deeper. As a result, periodontal disease occurs, accompanied by a nasty smell from the mouth, bleeding gums, loosening of the teeth and the release of pus.
It happens that a person keeps his teeth in almost perfect condition, completely neglecting their hygiene, but there are very few such examples. Everyone else needs to brush their teeth from an early age.
When to start brushing your baby's teeth
Many dads and moms begin to monitor the hygiene of the oral cavity of their child from 5-6 years of age, when the baby teeth are replaced by indigenous ones, but this approach is incorrect. It is necessary to accustom already when the first teeth erupt: between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The procedure is carried out after 30-40 minutes after feeding. To do this, use a clean gauze. One of the parents washes his hands thoroughly, and wets gauze in warm boiled water.Then she wraps it on her index finger and gently massages the child's gums in a circular motion. Instead of gauze, you can use a finger brush - a rubber cap with bristles or tubercles. There is also a teething brush that a child can hold on her own: her safety disc will not harm her.
When the child has the first incisors, and usually it happens from 8 months - it's time to give him a special baby toothbrush, and at different stages of the formation of the skill is different:
- To teach the baby to stay in the mouth of a foreign object, use brushes designed for ages from 6 to 8 months. In shape, they resemble a pacifier with rubber bristles, which is quite simple to give.
- To work out the movement, use brushes designed for ages from 8 months to 1 year. Outwardly, they resemble the previous look, but have a longer neck.
- To teach you how to thoroughly clean your teeth, choose brushes designed for ages 1-2 years.
The latter are similar to adult brushes, but differ from them:
- Small head (about 1-1.5 cm).
- Soft artificial bristles.
- Comfortable rubber grip.
- Maximum rounded edges.
From 2-2,5 years when brushing your teeth, you can use a paste. But only specialized, not containing abrasive substances (fluorine) that can damage tooth enamel and delicate oral mucosa. Also tasteless paste, or having a weak milky taste. Then the baby will not accept it as a treat, but it will not cause discomfort.
Starting to use toothpaste, you need to keep an eye on the baby. If he becomes sluggish, spots appear on the mucous membrane of his mouth, and a rash appears on the skin - a component that is allergic to the child is part of the paste. In this case, the paste should be urgently abandoned.
However, to teach your child how to brush their teeth, you need to be able to do it yourself.
How to brush your teeth
To answer this question you need to know what, how, how long and how many times a day they should be cleaned. Consider this in more detail.
How can you brush your teeth
To properly clean the teeth, a toothbrush and toothpaste are necessary first and foremost. When choosing a brush decisive criterion - the quality of the bristles. She may be:
- Soft This brush does not traumatize the gums, so it is perfect for children under 12 years old, pregnant women, as well as people suffering from problems with gums or diabetes. However, to clean off the old raid is not capable.
- Tough. Suitable for the tendency to the formation of plaque. The problem is that its intensive use can damage the enamel or the surrounding tissue.
- Medium stiffness. Good for cleaning healthy teeth. Brushes with her use most often.
When choosing a bristle it is recommended to consult a dentist. He will recommend the best option based on dental health. In addition, the doctor may recommend very soft bristles - with periodontal disease or very hard - at risk of formation of tartar.
Look at the state of the tips of the bristles:
- Rounded almost does not damage the gums;
- Pointy teeth are most effectively cleaned and the distance between them;
- Dull perfectly massaged gums.
An important criterion for selecting a brush is the head. Children need a head size of 1.5-2 cm, adults 2.5-3 cm. It is advisable to choose a head moving: it helps to clean the most distant teeth. And it is better that its upper part was equipped with a pad for cleaning the tongue.
Plus, the brush should be long enough for pressure regulation and have rubber inserts to make it easier to hold.
In modern stores, along with the usual you can see electric toothbrushes. Sellers claim that with them the teeth are cleaned of plaque as easily and efficiently as possible. This is true if you use these brushes only twice a week, but if you do it regularly, you can erase the enamel. A good alternative would be ultrasonic brushes. Such models are very expensive, so they are not in demand.
When selecting the paste is taken into account in what condition the teeth and gums. For complex care, they are looking for combined options, with the smell from the mouth - menthol or fruity aroma, etc. According to the purpose of the paste are:
- Anticarious, rich in calcium and fluoride. They perfectly strengthen tooth enamel, thereby fulfilling a preventive function. But with the occurrence of caries will not help, but only exacerbate the destruction.
- Anti-inflammatory - with an extract of medicinal herbs. They are especially useful if the gums bleed because they help to heal small wounds in the mouth. And also help restore the microflora and get rid of bad breath.
- Whitening - effective removal of plaque and coloring pigments here is achieved through abrasive particles. However, these pastes thin enamel, which leads to damage. Therefore, the whitening effect should be combined with a healing one. These pastes have a more gentle effect, although they are much more expensive.
- Salt, stimulating metabolic processes in the gum tissue and positively affecting the microflora due to mineral salts. Such pastes help to prevent and treat gum disease.
- Pastes for sensitive teeth. They have a protective effect, forming a thin film on the teeth, reducing sensitivity and reducing perception to aggressive media.
A good addition to the brush will be dental floss or floss to clean those places that the toothbrush most often does not get.
But with alternative toothpaste means everything is not so simple. Their supporters most often recommend replacing the paste:
- Tooth powder. It consists of 98-99% of precipitated chalk and 1-2% of fragrances and active additives. The first consists of calcium carbonate interspersed with silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide and iron and magnesium carbonate and is important for strengthening the enamel and gums. The latter give the powder therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Here we can talk about sea salt, essential oils, dry clay, crushed dried medicinal herbs, etc. However, the precipitated chalk still remains with chalk. And because of its high abrasiveness can damage the thin tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth powder to those whose teeth are sensitive, is contraindicated. There are not enough useful additives in it for solving specific problems with teeth. Tooth powder perfectly loosens the dense deposits of plaque and tartar, restores the acid-base balance, but it is very inconvenient to use it.
- Household soap. Getting on the mucous membranes, it creates gammaglobulin - a substance necessary to eliminate bacteria. However, this soap is rich in alkalis and acids, so it can not get into the stomach, whereas when cleaning it may be accidentally swallowed.
- Soda. Soda is an excellent antiseptic since it creates an alkaline environment unfavorable to bacteria in the oral cavity. However, the product is abrasive and can also damage tooth enamel. In addition, soda leads to bleeding gums and allergic reactions - rashes around the mouth.
- Activated carbon. It perfectly cleans plaque of teeth, but due to its abrasive properties it is also capable of destroying enamel. In addition, the cleaning process in this case is quite long: the final rinsing of the mouth is usually not enough, the activated carbon will have to be cleaned off additionally.
How long does it take to clean
The optimal period for brushing your teeth is 3-4 minutes using regular paste and no more than 3 minutes using a paste containing fluoride. It is 3 minutes after contact with the teeth that the fluoride substances contained in the paste begin to act.
At the same time there is no need to make 150-200 movements with a toothbrush, as recommended from the 50s. 10 movements on each side are enough. However, these movements must be correct, otherwise the procedure will not make sense.
The teeth cleaning procedure includes the following steps:
- Toothpaste is squeezed onto a clean brush. It needs a little: just a pea. Otherwise, too much foam will appear during cleaning, the excess of which can be accidentally swallowed, which will have a bad effect on the body.
- The brush is taken so that its head is located horizontally and at an angle of 45 degrees relative to the gums. And then gently drive her head up and down. The cleaning starts from the upper jaw, from the outside, from its left corner (for left-handers - from the right).
- Then, with closed teeth, they brush with the brush from left to right in circular motions in order to more effectively clean the entire surface of the teeth, starting from the edge of the gums and ending at the edge of the teeth.
- Then turn the brush head vertically and start brushing the teeth on the inside. They do it in the same way as when cleaning the outer side, but they drive the brush with rotational movements from the edge of the gum to the edge of the teeth.
- Similarly, the entire inside of the incisor teeth is cleaned.
- The final step is to clean the chewing surfaces of the teeth with the help of forward and backward movements, as well as cleaning the tongue.
- In the end it remains only to rinse the toothbrush and rinse the mouth thoroughly, which can be done both with a specialized rinse and tap water. To improve the efficiency of brushing, toothbrushes are changed every 3-4 months.
If a dental floss is used in addition to the toothbrush, then proceed as follows:
- Take a tape with a thread. Draw about 40 cm of thread, if necessary, measuring the length of the ruler.
- Twist the thread on the middle or index fingers: one end on the right hand, the other - on the left. One finger is needed to fix the thread, the other serves as a basis for winding its main part.
- Between the fingers, a fragment of the thread is left approximately 5 cm, securely fixing it between the thumb of the right hand and the index left hand.
- Proceed directly to brushing, mouth wide open and skipping a segment between the teeth, but so as to avoid injuries to the gums.
- Then press it to the side of the tooth and move it downwards, trying to get it a little beyond the edge of the gum. 6-8 such movements will suffice. The course should not be sharp, but easy and smooth. First the thread goes back and forth, and then up and down.
All teeth are cleaned this way, and in order for bacteria not to pass from one of them to another, starting to clean each new tooth, a new thread fragment is used.
How many times a day and when
Brushing your teeth should be done regularly twice a day - in the morning and in the evening, but no more. Otherwise, it may cause irritation or drying of the mucous tissues. The exception is when a person has eaten a very sour, or a very sweet dish. In all other cases, simply rinse your mouth.
The time of evening tooth brushing is before going to bed. But there is no definitive answer to the question about the time of morning cleaning. It would seem logical to brush your teeth after breakfast:
- So you can get rid of pieces of food stuck in your teeth.
- Prevent the inflammatory process due to the antimicrobial components contained in the paste, if gums or oral mucosa were accidentally injured during the meal.
- Do not let the enamel stain after drinking tea or coffee.
- Refresh your breath before you go on business.
The trouble is that immediately after a meal, tooth enamel softens under the influence of acids contained in foods and drinks, and it is easy to damage it with a toothbrush. That is why dentists recommend brushing your teeth either before breakfast, or 30-60 minutes later, and before breakfast - rinse.
However, the question arises: why even brush your teeth in the morning, if it was done at night? After all, at night a person does not take food. But the fact is that at night the bacteria in the oral cavity continue to multiply, and the salivation that washes them away decreases. One of the consequences of this is a nasty smell from the mouth. Another is the entry of bacteria with food into the esophagus, if the teeth are not pre-cleaned or at least not rinsed.
There are cases when the algorithm of regular cleaning has to be changed. The reason, in particular, can be tooth extraction.
Can I clean after removal
An open wound remains in place of the torn out tooth - a hole that is tightened with a blood clot. It should not be injured, because the recovery process is broken. Therefore, the first day of cleaning is not needed at all. On the second day, it is permissible to use a soft fiber brush, trying to bypass the hole. On the third or fourth day, you can use a regular brush. But you should act carefully and according to the following algorithm:
- First, clean the gums and tongue, using the back of the brush or a special spatula.
- The brush is moved in the direction from the healthy side of the jaw to the damaged. At the same time, slightly tilt your head to the healthy side and forward, not allowing the paste to fall into the hole. Lips open, allowing foam to flow freely. Movement brush when cleaning - circular.
- They reach the hole last. At the same time try not to hurt the hole itself. There is a cleaning of the teeth next to it with the help of soft circular movements.
- After completing the procedure, they take water into the mouth, hold it there for a short time or move it carefully around the mouth, and then spit it carefully. Use a clean brush over the rows of teeth to remove the paste. Rinse repeat.
On the eighth day after the removal of the tooth, you can go to the standard algorithm. If everything has been done correctly before, the hole will heal quickly.
The situation is more difficult when the wisdom tooth is removed. The blood supply of the soft tissues holding it is abundant, so that the bleeding will be longer to stop.
If a wisdom tooth is removed, then on the first day no cleansing or rinsing is allowed. On the second, light rinses or baths of saline are acceptable. They are made like this: in a glass of water at room temperature dissolve 1 teaspoon of salt. It remains to collect the resulting fluid in the mouth and alternately smoothly and slowly tilt your head. The procedure is repeated every time after eating.
And only from the third day you can use a toothbrush and toothpaste. It is necessary to do this as carefully as possible following the above algorithm. After the procedure is completed, the paste is not spat out to avoid unnecessary movements. Foam should flow freely into the sink. After cleaning, the mucous is rinsed with saline. If, after pulling out a wisdom tooth, to neglect oral hygiene, an inflammatory process can develop - alveolar osteomyelitis.
Having considered the main nuances associated with brushing your teeth, you can come to the conclusion: this procedure is very important for health and extremely simple during the procedure. Therefore, it should not be neglected.